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1. What are the primary benefits of ultraviolet water treatment?
Ultraviolet (UV) light treatment is a widely recognized and proven method of disinfection of water. It is a physical treatment, not chemical, so it doesn't alter the water chemistry. UV doesn’t add color, odor, taste or flavor to the water and doesn’t generate harmful by-products.

2. What industries use UV water treatment?
It is a well-proven technology and almost every industry that uses water for process or production could employ UV technology for water treatment. Examples include microelectronics, life sciences, food & beverage, aquaculture, recreational water and municipal drinking water.

3. Describe a typical UV water treatment unit and how it works.
A typical UV unit works by irradiating flowing water using UV lamps strategically placed within the treatment chamber. Although the water resides within the chamber for only a few seconds, it receives sufficient UV dosage to be lethal to microorganisms present in the feed water. A dosage of 30 mJ/cm2 is sufficient to destroy most water-borne microorganisms. UV treatment requires a fraction of the contact time required by other disinfection methods.

4. In the Chlorine/Chloramine removal process, what advantages does UV treatment have over the conventional methods?
With UV, there are no side effects to overcome because no chemicals are added that have to be removed later. The two conventional processes for chlorine/chloramines elimination, activated carbon adsorption and sodium metabisulfate injection, have inherent drawbacks such as biofouling, added substance problems for the sodium metabisulfate methods, and disposal of the spent carbon for the activated carbon method. UV is environmentally friendly while the other two methods are not.

5. Explain the need for TOC reduction for the ultrapure water used for the semiconductor industry.
Residual Total Organic Carbon (TOC) in semiconductor rinse water streams causes a haze over the water surface that contaminates the water and leads to water defects. UV treatment renders cleaner rinse water and virtually devoid of TOC.

That is one of the reasons why Aquafine's skid-mounted systems engineered especially for the semiconductor industry are in wide use around the world.

6. UV treatment is a proven method of Ozone destruction. Why is that so important to the beverage industry?
Beverage companies use residual ozone in their water systems to sanitize and disinfect the storage tanks, plumbing and pumps and to ensure they remain bacteria free. The residual ozone needs to be destroyed prior to contact with the product so that it does not contaminate. UV is ideal because it is a non-chemical process and it's fast.

Aquafine UV equipment can guarantee complete elimination of residual ozone and results in a product that's safer for human consumption.

7. Why are two different wavelengths used in water treatment?
Two different UV wavelengths are employed in water treatment: 254 and 185 nm. 254 nm UV light is called the germicidal light because of its ability to destroy microorganisms. It is used to disinfect and destroy ozone. It penetrates the outer cell wall of the microorganism, passes through the cell body, reaches the DNA and alters the genetic material, destroying the organism.

The 185 nm light carries more energy than the 254 nm light. It generates hydroxyl (OH·) free radicals by cleavage of the water molecules, and is used in TOC reduction to decompose organic molecules into carbon dioxide and water.

8. What manufacturing processes does Aquafine employ to ensure superior performance?
Aquafine's products employ state-of-the-art design standards such as T-drill connections and orbital welding that assure longevity and purity. Sanitary inlet and outlet connections are available on all units, sanitary ferrule endplates replace the normal bolted and threaded design, which eliminates potential contamination points. Aquafine's UV systems feature lamps with single-ended (SE) designs. The single-ended option offers easier and faster lamp change-out time with fewer disconnects.

Our Colorguard® lamps are color coded for easy identification and are available with validation. The quartz tubes (sleeves) that house the lamps are specially designed for high efficiency. They transmit 95% of the UV energy produced by the lamps. Aquafine's Lamp Lok™ assembly securely centers the UV lamps within the quartz sleeve and locks in place. The wetted surfaces on these systems are 316L stainless steel, passivated and electropolished to ensure corrosion resistance and minimize carbon precipitation.

9. What other advantages does Aquafine offer?
Aquafine offers more than 80 years of experience in UV water treatment equipment design and manufacturing. We pioneered the TOC reduction and chlorine destruction applications on a commercial basis. We have more industrial water treatment experience and a greater number of successful installations worldwide than any other UV company. We also have a field service network that is unmatched in the industry and we offer some very innovative engineering advantages that translate into faster maintenance, faster installations and longer equipment life.

Aquafine's facility features office and factory space dedicated to research and development platforms, including enhanced UV lamp and power testing areas. The installation of a recirculating water system with chiller allows us to simulate hours of actual operating conditions on any new UV skid system before it is shipped, ensuring the uninterrupted performance of the system. The new factory floor plan incorporates high performance manufacturing cells, which reduce lead times and increase efficiency.

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